The Lego ultrasonic sensor, or shortly the US sensor, is a range sensor. It measures the distance between the sensor and an object in front of the sensor. It does by sending short beeps and measuring how much time it takes for the beep to bounce back. Knowing the speed of sound it can then calculate the distance to the object. It works just like the sonar of a submarine.
The US sensor is one of most widely used sensors for Mindstorms. It is included in both NXT sets. Its most common application is in object avoidance. Given the wide spread use of the US sensor there is surprisingly little information available about the US sensor. This post hopes to change that.
The sensor is a digital sensor. It returns the distance to an object (or objects as we will discuss later) as a byte value expressed in cm. The value of 255 has a special meaning, it indicates there is no object within measuring range.
So In theory its minimum range is 0 cm and its maximum range is 254 cm. In reality the minimum range is about 7 cm. The maximum range depends on the object to be detected, large and hard objects can be detected over a longer range than small and soft objects. False echoes can limit the practical range even further. To my experience a wall (large and hard) can often be detected if it is within a range of two meters, but for a reliable signal it has to be within a range of 160 centimeter.
The resolution of the sensor is 1 cm. but that does not mean the sensor is that accurate. Most often the sensor measurement is a few cm of the true distance. If accurate measurements are needed one has to find out how big the error of the particular sensor is and compensate for this. According to the datasheet the sensor can compensate for the error by supplying calibration settings. However I have not been able to do so. My sensors do ignore calibration commands so I suspect that this functionality doesn’t work. (btw, the calibration address is not 0x50 as the datasheet states, it is 0x4a). Any calibration therefore has to be done in the user program.
The sensor has five modes of operation, off, continuous, ping, capture and reset. Only the continuous and ping modes work properly. The capture mode is supposed to detect other US sensors in the vicinity but this does not work. The sensor freezes in this mode and can only be activated again using the reset mode.
In continuous mode the sensor does continuous measurements at an interval of about 35 msec. It will only detect the nearest object.
In ping mode the sensor will only perform a single measurement, after that it will go in off mode. For a new measurement it has to be put in ping mode again. Ping mode has two advantages over continuous mode. In continuous mode one can only have one active sensor, adding a second sensor would disturb the echo off the first sensor as there is no way it can distinguish between an echo from its own beep and a beep from another sensor. In ping mode one can make sure that there are no two pings issued simultaneously and thus avoid disturbances. The second advantage of ping mode should be the ability of the sensor to measure the range of up to eight objects. This however does not work flawless. I get odd ranges for every but the first object. I guess the sensors ability to filter out false echoes is not so good. I have tried to filter out false echoes myself but I did not succeed in this. I therefore only use the first range when using my sensors in ping mode.
After all I was disappointed in the advanced capabilities of the sensor.
A sound beep does not travel in a narrow straight line as a laser beam does. Instead it spreads out like the light beam of a torchlight. As a result the sensor not only detects objects that are exactly in front of the sensor, it also detects objects that are somewhat to the left or right. As a rule of thumb one can assume that objects that are within an angle 15 degrees to the left or right are detected. The total width of the detection area is about 30 degrees. When using the sensor for obstacle avoidance this wide beam is an advantage. When the sensor is used for mapping it is a drawback as objects seem wider then they really are. They also seem arc shaped, the arc having an angle of at least 30 degrees for small objects and more for wider objects. See the image below. This makes the US sensor less suitable for detailed mapping. But keeping these effects in mind one can still create useful maps with this sensor. See one of my previous posts, a range map, for a successful application.
The US sensor sometimes suffers from an error in its measurement, it then returns a value of 255. This can happen at any time but is more frequent when the object is difficult to detect. This can lead to strange behavior of a robot. I once had a obstacle avoiding robot that sometimes drove straight for a short moment while turning to avoid an obstacle. It turned out that the sensor sometimes returned the 255 value even when an obstacle was in front of the robot. My program interpreted this value as “no obstacles ahead” and went straight ahead. It corrected itself once it got a new, valid, measurement. But its behavior seemed strange. Since then I always use a median or min filter on the US sensor. These filters filter out a single 255 value but pass a series of 255 values. As a result they effectively distinguish an invalid measurement from a “no obstacle ahead” condition.
A few last, technical, remarks on the sensor.
- according to the datasheet one can alter the measurement interval of the sensor. I could not see any effects of this.
- one can write to address 104. This is not documented. I could not find out what this is for.
- Xander has a nice post showing the internals of the sensor.